English Grammar

In this blog, I will summarize some of the basics of English grammar that I wished I knew when I was in school...

  • Verb - action or a state of being.
  • Nouns - person, place, thing or idea.
  • Pronouns - Replaces a noun. For ex, Instead of writing John several times, you may write he, his etc. Similarly she, her, they, we, it, you, them, themselves, ourselves etc.
  • Adjectives - Describe or modify nouns. Like a ‘red’ box. Red is the adjective.
  • Adverbs - Modifies a verb, an adjective or an adverb. verb - it is raining heavily. adjective - The coffee is extremely hot. adverb - It rains very hard.
  • Prepositions - words that link noun, pronoun to other parts of sentences. Like on, at, in, of, to, for
  • Conjunctions - joins words or group of words in a sentence. Like and, but, or, so, for etc.

Tenses
Simple Present Tense - John eats an apple.
The verb ‘eats’ refers to the action of eating ‘right now’ or in the present time.
verb play = plays

Present Continuous TenseJohn is eating an apple.
The verb ‘is eating’ refers to the action of eating, is still going on in the present time.
verb play = is/are playing

Present Perfect TenseJohn has eaten an apple.
The verb ‘has eaten’ refers to the action of eating that has just been completed.
verb play = have/has played

Present Perfect Continuous - It has been raining and the street is still wet.
A continuous action that started in the past and has ended in the past but has some relation with the present time.


Simple Past TenseJohn ate an apple.
The verb ‘ate’ refers to the action of eating which is completed in the past time. 
verb play = played

Past Continuous TenseJohn was eating an apple.
The verb ‘was eating’ refers to the action of eating, was going on for sometime in the past.
verb play = was/were playing

Past Perfect TenseJohn had eaten an apple.
The verb ‘had eaten’ refers to the action of eating that was completed in the past.
verb play = had played

Past Perfect Continuous - It had been raining and the street was still wet.
A continuous action in the past that was completed before another past action.


Simple Future TenseJohn will eat an apple.
The verb ‘will eat’ refers to the action of eating that has yet to take place in future. 
verb play = will/shall play

Future Continuous TenseJohn will be eating an apple.
The verb ‘will be eating’ refers to the action of eating, will be happening over a period of time.
verb play = shall be/will be playing

Future Perfect TenseJohn will have eaten an apple.
The verb ‘will have eaten’ refers to the action of eating that will be completed at some point in the future.
verb play = will have/ shall have played

Future Perfect Continuous - By tonight it will have been raining several hours, and the street will be very wet.
A continuous action that will be completed in the future.

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